International Syalons (Newcastle) Ltd., have been exploring the mechanical properties of silicon nitride-based sialon advanced ceramics at great length since the material’s inception in the early-1980s. Sialon (Si-Al-O-N) is an advanced engineering ceramic that offers outstanding fracture toughness, high strength, and excellent resistance to multiple wearing phenomena, in addition to high temperature and corrosion resistance. This enables silicon nitride-based ceramics to withstand severe operating conditions that may cause alternative ceramics to propagate flaws, deform, or fail. Hardness and the resulting wear resistance are therefore vital properties which are generally offered by advanced ceramics. The hardness of a material is a measure of how well its crystalline structure holds together in response to friction or impact forces. Hardness usually exhibits a linear relationship to the strength of the atomic structure of the material. However, it is a complex property that is dependent on numerous factors including strength, toughness, and ductility. Three distinct measurement types are ascribed to determine the hardness of materials in response to specific forms of stress. I...